mid-14c., “what is thought, data (of one thing) acquired by examine; data;” additionally “assurance of data, certitude, certainty,” from Outdated French science “data, studying, utility; corpus of human data” (12c.), from Latin scientia “data, a understanding; expertness,” from sciens (genitive scientis) “clever, expert,” current participle of scire “to know,” in all probability initially “to separate one factor from one other, to tell apart,” associated to scindere “to chop, divide” (from PIE root *skei- “to chop, cut up;” supply additionally of Greek skhizein “to separate, rend, cleave,” Gothic skaidan, Outdated English sceadan “to divide, separate”).
From late 14c. in English as “book-learning,” additionally “a selected department of data or of studying;” additionally “skillfulness, cleverness; craftiness.” From c. 1400 as “experiential data;” additionally “a talent, handicraft; a commerce.” From late 14c. as “collective human data” (particularly that gained by systematic statement, experiment, and reasoning). Trendy (restricted) sense of “physique of standard or methodical observations or propositions regarding a selected topic or hypothesis” is attested from 1725; in 17c.-18c. this idea generally was known as philosophy. Sense of “non-arts research” is attested from 1670s.
Science, since individuals should do it, is a socially embedded exercise. It progresses by hunch, imaginative and prescient, and instinct. A lot of its change via time doesn’t document a better method to absolute fact, however the alteration of cultural contexts that affect it so strongly. Info aren’t pure and unsullied bits of data; tradition additionally influences what we see and the way we see it. Theories, furthermore, aren’t inexorable inductions from info. Essentially the most inventive theories are sometimes imaginative visions imposed upon info; the supply of creativeness can be strongly cultural. [Stephen Jay Gould, introduction to “The Mismeasure of Man,” 1981]
In science you have to not discuss earlier than . In artwork you have to not discuss earlier than you do. In literature you have to not discuss earlier than you suppose. [John Ruskin, “The Eagle’s Nest,” 1872]
The excellence is often understood as between theoretical fact (Greek epistemē) and strategies for effecting sensible outcomes (tekhnē), however science typically is used for sensible purposes and artwork for purposes of talent. To blind (somebody) with science “confuse by way of massive phrases or advanced explanations” is attested from 1937, initially famous as a phrase from Australia and New Zealand.